TYPES OF CEMENT AND THEIR USES

TYPES OF CEMENT AND THEIR USES

Cement is a building material which is used in the construction industry. Cement sets well underwater and hardens quickly and attain strength. cement contain hydraulic properties to great extent and acquires more strength on the setting. In actual cement is a Calcareous substance which is used in mortar or concrete for construction.
               A wide variety of types of cement are available which are suitable for use under certain conditions due to its special properties. They are as follows
  1. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC)
  2. Portland pozzolana cement (PPC)
  3. Rapid hardening Portland cement
  4. Extra rapid hardening Portland cement
  5. Low heat Portland cement
  6. Sulphate-resisting Portland cement
  7. Supersulphated cement
  8. High alumina cement
  9. Portland blast furnace
  10. White Portland cement
  11. Air-entraining cement
  12. Hydrophobic cement
  13. Quick setting cement
  14. Coloured cement

1. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)

It is used for making concrete used in general construction. It has a low resistance to chemical attack, and it has a medium rate of hardening. The colour of ordinary Portland cement is grey or greenish-grey. Chemical compositions are silica-alumina, iron oxide, magnesia. sulphur trioxide, soda and potash. It comes with grade 33,43 and 53.

Uses

Commonly used for all type of construction works. Widely, used in residential construction where a special type of cement properties is not required.

2. Portland pozzolana cement (PPC)

Portland pozzolana cement is produced by grinding together a mixture of 60 to 80% Portland cement and 20 to 40% pozzolana which may be a naturally active material such as fly ash, rice husk Ash, volcanic tuff, Pumicites, clay and shale. It has a higher resistance to chemical disintegration and sulphate attack.

Uses

This cement is especially, useful in marine and underwater constructions. This cement produces less heat of hydration and offers greater resistance to the attack of water than ordinary Portland cement.

3. Rapid hardening Portland cement

It develops strength rapidly, so as it is called as High early strength cement. This cement develops strength rapidly due to the higher fineness of grinding and high C3S and lowers C2S content.

Uses

This type of cement is used where high strength is needed to be achieved in the initial stage quickly. It is mainly used for the construction of underwater work.

  •         Road Pavement Work
  •         Precast concrete casting (Beam, column etc.)
4. Extra rapid hardening Portland cement

It contains calcium chloride ground with it, which accelerate the chemical reaction, it results in increasing the early rate of gain of strength and the evolution of heat.

5. Low heat Portland cement

A cement which produces less amount of heat is called low heat cement. This type of cement is evolved by reducing the content C3S and C3A which are the compounds evolving the maximum heat of hydration and increasing C2S.

Uses

This type of cement is used in mass constructions like the dam and where high wear resistance is required.

  •           Mass construction (Dams, Marine construction)
  • .        Hydraulic engineering concrete
  •          Retaining wall construction
6. Sulphate-resisting Portland cement

To remedy the sulphate attack, the use of low C3A content found to be effective. Such cement with low C3A and comparatively low C4A content is known as sulphate resisting cement. This cement contains a high percentage of silicate.

Uses

This type of cement is used in foundation basement where soil infected with sulphate. It is also used in case of construction of sewage treatment works and also in the marine structure.

  •         Pile foundation
  •         In coastal area works
  •         Sewage and water treatment plants
7. Super-sulphated cement

It is made by grinding together blast furnace slag, calcium sulphate and an activator, usually, Ordinary Portland cement. It is highly resistant to sulphate attack and can withstand attack from acid having a pH value as low as 3.5. It has a very low evolution of heat.

8. High alumina cement

 It is produced by fusing together a mixture of limestone and bauxite. It has an exceptionally high proportion of aluminate (33 to 44%), resulting in the rapid development of strength and high evolution of heat.

Uses

 It is used in massive concrete construction and works of furnaces and chemical plants.

9. Portland blast furnace

It is manufactured grinding together a mixture of Portland cement, clinker and blast furnace slag with a small quantity of gypsum. The proportion of slag is limited to 65% of the total. It has a lower rate of hardening, lower heat of hydration and is more resistant to chemical attack, especially in seawater, than ordinary Portland cement.


10.White Portland cement 

It has the same properties as of Ordinary Portland cement except that strength is little lower than the ordinary Portland cement. White cement is available in the market in 5kg, 10Kg, 20 kg and 50 kg bags.

Uses

  •         It is used for aesthetic purpose.
  •         Used as a base coat before painting.
  •         Used to cover the hairline cracks on the concrete surface to give a smooth finish.
11.Air-entraining cement

It is ordinary Portland cement to which an air-entraining agent has been inter ground during the manufacturing process. These material have the property of entraining more air in the concrete in the form of air bubbles of diameter 0.075 mm to 1.25 mm. It is more resistant to freezing.

Uses

It is used to fill up the gap in concrete which are produced by an excessive amount of water during casting (later evaporated and leave the gap). Used in frost resistance concrete (frost also make a gap in concrete)

12. Hydrophobic cement

It is Ordinary Portland cement to which additive is mixed which give a protective coating to the cement particles, thus inhibiting hydration of the cement This enables the cement to be stored in damp or buried conditions for a much longer period than is possible for ordinary Portland cement. 

Uses
  •         It is useful in wet climatic conditions.
  •         Useful when cement is stored for longer duration in wet climatic condition.
13. Quick setting cement

This type of cement sets very early. This property is brought out by reducing the gypsum content at the time of clinker grinding.

Uses

This cement is used where the works need to be done quickly.

  •       In underwater construction.
  •        In cold and rainy weather conditions.
14. Coloured cement

Coloured cement is manufactured by grinding 5 to 10% of suitable colour pigment with ordinary portland cement. It is used for any aesthetic purpose, artificial marble and flooring finishing.

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Also, Read - 

1. Difference Between 33, 43 and 53 Grade Cement
2. Difference Between OPC and PPC Cement

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