Difference Between Compaction and Consolidation of Soil

Difference Between Compaction and Consolidation of Soil

Companion and Consolidation are the methods of compressibility of soil. Both are soil improvement techniques. Today in this article, we are going to discuss the difference between compaction and consolidation.
Difference Between Compaction and Consolidation

Compaction VS Consolidation

Compaction of Soil
  1. Compaction is an instantaneous process of reducing the volume of voids of soil due to the expulsion of pore air.
  2. In compaction, the air is removed from voids.
  3. It is an instantaneous process of reduction of volume of voids.
  4. It is an artificial process.
  5. For compaction degree of saturation should be less than one which means (S < 1) soil should be partially saturated that means air and water are present in the soil voids.
  6. Compaction can be done before the construction.
  7. Compaction is done by mechanical means such as rolling, tamping and vibration.
  8. Compaction is done to attain maximum dry density at optimum moisture content.
  9. All kind of soil whether it is cohesive or noncohesive can be compacted.
  10. Loading period is short.
  11. Compaction is one stage process.
  12. Compaction can be controlled.
  13. Compaction is the primary process.
Difference Between Compaction and Consolidation

Advantages of  Soil Compaction
  1. Compaction makes soil hard and stiff.
  2. Compaction increase unit weight, effective stress
  3. Compaction increase the shear strength of the soil. 
  4. Compaction increase the bearing capacity of the soil.
  5. Compaction decrease permeability and compressibility of soil.
  6. Compaction reduces frost damage.
  7. Compaction reduces the cross-section area of the required footing.
  8. Compaction makes structure economical.
  9. Compaction of soil is necessary for the construction of Roads, Runways earth dams and other engineering structure.
Difference Between Compaction and Consolidation

Consolidation of Soil
  1. It is a time-dependent process of reducing the volume of voids of soil due to the expulsion of pore water.
  2. In consolidation, water is removed from voids.
  3. This is a time-dependent process of reduction of volume.
  4. It is a natural process.
  5.  For consolidation degree of saturation should be one (S = 1) which means fully saturated soil(100%), that means only water is present in the soil voids.
  6. Consolidation can not be done before the construction. There are some methods by which consolidation can be done before construction but 100% consolidation can not be achieved.
  7. Consolidation is done by sustained, static loading.
  8. loading period is long. It may take many years for 100% consolidation.
  9. Consolidation occurs naturally due to the structural load from the foundation.
  10. Consolidation applies only for cohesive soils, especially for low permeable clay.
  11. Consolidation is a two-stage process that is Primary consolidation and Secondary consolidation.
  12. Consolidation can not be controlled. it is a natural process.
  13. Consolidation starts after compaction.
So, friends, I hope I have covered all the differences between Compaction and consolidation of soil in this post. If you find this article helpful please be sure to share it with someone who might benefit from it. If you want to give any suggestion or add any information which has missed in this article you can mention it in the comment section. 

Finally, thanks! for reading this article. 

  1. What Is Soil Consolidation
  2. Causes of Settlement of Foundation
  3. What is Pile Foundation? Types of Pile Foundation
  4. Combined Footing - Definition and Types
  5. Caisson or Well foundation - Types and Components

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