AAC Blocks – Properties, Advantages, Manufacturing and Laying Process

What is AAC Block?

Autoclaved aerated concrete AAC has many names like autoclaved cellular concrete, autoclaved lightweight concrete, porous concrete, aircrete, etc. AAC is lightweight precast foam concrete. These blocks are porous, reusable, non-toxic, renewable, and recyclable also.  

When AAC was first developed?

AAC was developed in 1924 by a Swedish architect, seek for alternate building material with properties like wood. Wood has qualities like thermal insulation, firm structure, and allow smooth working with it. But wood has certain disadvantages like combustibility, decay, and termite damage. So AAC has all these properties of wood, and also it is fire and termite resistant. 

AAC Blocks - Properties, Advantages, Manufacturing and Laying Process

Advantages of Using AAC Blocks

Lightweight 

AAC Blocks are three to four times lighter than traditional brick; therefore, more suitable and cheaper to transport.

AAC Block weighs approximately 50% less than standard concrete masonry block, and usage reduces the overall dead load of the building thereby allowing construction of the taller building 

Easy Workability and design flexibility 

Blocks can be easily cut drilled nailed Miled and grooved to fit individual requirements available in custom sizes simplifies hydro sanitary and electrical installations such as pipes or ducts, which we can install after the completion of the leading construction. 

Faster Construction

Reduces construction time by 20% different sizes of blocks helps reduce the number of joints in wall masonry, lighter blocks facilitate more comfortable and faster construction. These blocks are easy to install also sets and hardens quickly. 

Minimum Wastages 

AAC blocks have negligible breakage less than 5%; hence utilization of blocks increases.

Thermal insulation and energy-efficient 

These blocks allow excellent thermal insulation due to tiny air pores and thermal mass of blocks. Hence helps in reducing heating and air conditioning costs of a building. 

Eco friendly and sustainable 

Mix productive use of recycled Industrial waste is a fly ash non-polluting manufacturing process. The only by-product is steam made of non-toxic ingredients that do not exist gasses. 

Acoustic performance 

Superior sound absorption qualities due to the porous structure of block offer sound attenuation of about 42 decibels blocking out all significant sounds and disturbances ideal for Schools, Hospitals, Hotels, Offices, Multifamily housing, and other structures that require acoustic insulation.

Fire-resistant 

AAC blocks are non-combustible and fire-resistant up to 1600 degrees Celsius. These blocks are fire-resistant approximately 2 to 6 hours, depends on the thickness of the Wall. 

AAC Blocks - Properties, Advantages, Manufacturing and Laying Process

Cost-saving 

The requirement for plaster on AAC blocks is less due to the surface accuracy of the blocks, thus reduces overall construction cost by 2.5 %.

Since it requires less jointing hence minimizes the demand for cement and steel. AAC block has high insulation properties, which help in saving energy costs by almost 30%.

Variation in sizes of blocks, help in increase carpet area. Almost Nill efflorescence affects the AAC Blocks permit wall painting and plastering to serve last longer, and this translates into low maintenance cost.

Seismic resistant

The manufacturing process gives the blocks excellent strength maintaining its lightweight property due to which the steadiness of these blocks in buildings is more reliable, making it earthquake resistant. 

Accuracy

ACC blocks offer high precision in size. Blocks are available in exact dimensions to provide a smooth wall with a perfect joint between different elements. It also helps to save cement and steel usage. 

Termite pest-resistant 

The blocks are made with inorganic materials; hence it keeps termites away, avoiding damages and losses. 

Water saver 

AAC Block walls do not require water for curing. Only the mortar joints need water for curing, thus reduces water consumption.

Blocks size  

Following block sizes are available in AAC Blocks.

S.No.Particulars     Size (L x B x H) in mm
1Size 1         600×200×200
2Size 2         600×200150
3Size 3         600×200×100
4Size 4         600×300×200
5Size 5         600×300×100
6Size 6         600×400×250

The weight of the standard size of a block, which is 600 × 200 × 200 mm is 15 kg. 

Properties of AAC Block 

Oven-dry density is 552 to 650 kg/cum 

Compressive strength is 35 to 40 kg/cm2 as per is code 2185 

Thermal resistance is 0.8 to 1.25 per inch of thickness 

Sound transmission class(STC) is 40 for 4-inch width and 45 for 8-inch width. 

property number 1 and 2 are essential so keep it in mind 

Technical Comparison of Blocks

ParameterAAC BlockConcrete BlockBrick
Size(600x200x100-300) mm(400x200x100-200) mm(230x115x75) mm
Compressive Strength30 – 50/Kg/3Cm240 – 50/Kg/Cm225 – 30/Kg/Cm2

Dry Density

600-650/Kg/Cum

1800 Kg/Cum

1950 Kg/Cum

Fire Resistance
4-6/Hour Depending On Thickness
42Hours

2Hours
Sound Reduction Index(DB)60 For 200 mm thick wall_40 For 230 mm Thick Wall
Thermal Conductivity w/(Km)0.25
0.51

0.81

Physical Properties of Autoclaved Cellular Concrete Blocks Clauses (4.1,8.3,8.4,8.5,11.2,11.3 and 11.4) IS :2185(Part-3) 1984

S.No.Density in oven-dry conditionCompressive strength min grade 1 N/mm2Compressive strength min grade 2 N/mm2Thermal conductivity in air-dry condition w/MK
1451 to 55021.50.21
2551 to 650430.24
3651 to 750540.30
4751 to 850650.37
5851 to 1000760.42

Manufacturing Process

AAC is a precast product manufactured by combining pulverized fly ash, gypsum, lime, cement, water, and Aluminium powder poured into a mould.

Once added to the concrete aluminium powder reacts with lime and fly ash resulting in the formation of millions of microscopic hydrogen bubbles.

The hydrogen Bubbles cause the concrete to expand to roughly double The Times of its original volume the hydrogen subsequently evaporates leaving a high closed shale aerated concrete.

Then aerated concrete is cut into blocks which are then steam and pressure cured in an autoclave for 8 to 12 hours.

Laying process 

Laying of AAC Block masonry shall be as per IS 6041 of 1985 and IS 1905 of 1987. AAC Block laying process is almost similar to brick masonry only a few differences are there 

Opening and odd angles should be cut with a handsaw. 

Bond beams should be placed at the top of the wall and we can use it for heavy-duty fixture attachment. 

The vertical joint shall not be in a straight line. 

Overlapping of blocks in the structured course should be a minimum of 250 mm over the bottom course. 

Thickness of joints 

The thickness of the joint should be kept at 10 mm in case of cement sand traditional motor if we are using dry mix mortar on AAC blocks then only 3 to 5 mm thick motor is required. 

Here I will tell you about the dry-mix motor. 

Dry mix motor is a factory mix mortar which contains cement, graded sand and polymers. 

Precautions to be taken while laying of AAC masonry 

  1. Do not use the blocks below plinth level like in the foundation, drainage pit, water tank and where excessive dampness is likely. It is the reason we don’t use  AAC blocks working toilets and bathroom similar to brick masonry it is not recommended to have an AAC Block wall without stiffeners. 
  2. It is necessary to provide stiffener after everything three-metre length. 
  3. It is recommended to provide bond beam after every fourth course with starter reinforcement, so the wall load is uniformly distributed to avoid any shear crack and horizontal crack.
  4. Avoid using AAC blocks for the load-bearing structure that structures where beams and columns are not used. 
  5. mortar mix should be 1:6 and do not use the rich motor with 1:4 as this will shrink and will cause cracks in the Wall 
  6. preferably used Portland pozzolana cement for better results 
  7. Do not store the blocks on the unlabeled surface 

ACC Block Plant

AAC Blocks - Properties, Advantages, Manufacturing and Laying Process
S.No.DescriptionS.No.Description
1Material hopper10Cutting machine
2Slurry making tank11Tilting crane
3Slurry making pit tank12Windless machine
4Silo13Steam trolley car
5Pouring section platform14Autoclave
6Pouring mixer15Ferry car outlet
7Ferry cart16Side plate return roller system
8Mould box17Finish block dispatch point
9Ground crane

This is a complete post about AAC Blocks. I have tried to cover all the information about AAC Blocks and AAC block masonry. I hope now you have great knowledge about it.

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Also, read

Pre-stressed Concrete – Definition, Method, Advantages and Disadvantages

Difference Between Brick Masonry and Stone Masonry

1 thought on “AAC Blocks – Properties, Advantages, Manufacturing and Laying Process”

  1. I like how you wrote about AAC Blocks – Properties,
    Advantages, Manufacturing and Laying Process.
    Thanks and keep it up!

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